Infertility is a term, which is given to the condition of people or couples who have not been able to conceive naturally for a period of time.

The time required to seek assistance from a doctor for people under 35, who cannot conceive naturally, is one year. Above the age of 35, it is 6 months.

The couple must be assessed in detail. As a result of this evaluation, necessary treatments for the patients are then determined. This treatment can be following ovulation, IUI or IVF.

The required treatment for each patient is determined as a result of the following diagnostic methods.

Diagnostic Methods of Women Infertility

Hormon Tests   (during 2nd or 3rd day of menstruation)

  • FSH
  • LH
  • E2
  • PRL
  • TSH
  • ST4

are required.

If necessary, a further test AMH-anti mullerian hormone test, which shows ovary reserves can be required also.

Ultrasonography (USG)

Learning ovary reserves, uterus and tubes evaluation, ultra sound examination is done. Here it can be understood if there is any physical problem or not. Fluid accumulation in tubes, polyp in uterus, myoma, ovary cysts etc. are determined during this examination.

Saline Infusion Sonography (SIS)

It is a process which is performed for the purpose of detecting the formation of spaces occupying the uterus (polyp, myoma, lining in the uterus, etc.) and adhesions. The uterus is assessed in ultrasonography by administering serum through a thin catheter.

Uterus Film (HSG)

Serial images (x-rays) are taken by displaying the uterus and the tubes by giving contrast material through the cervix. Cervical incompetence, space-occupying occurrences in the uterus, adhesions, congenital structural disturbances, clearness of the tubes and if there is any fluid accumulation can be detected.

Hysteroscopy

It is a process that enables observation and diagnosis of the problems and also treatments of these in the uterus by viewing the uterine cavity through a camera.

Laparoscopy

Under general anaesthesia, it is a process of examining the organs in the abdomen with a light camera by entering with a small incision from the abdomen. This allows diagnosis and treatment in the same session. In cases where no clear information can be obtained by other diagnostic methods, in intraabdominal adhesions, endometriosis (the case where the cell layer which is supposed to be inside the uterus is out of the uterus), inflammation of the tubes, accumulation of fluid in the tubes, ovarian cysts, ectopic pregnancy, unexplained pain and infertility situations is used for diagnosis and treatment purposes.

Diagnostic Methods in Male Infertility

Semen Analysis (Spermiogram)

This is the first test to be done for infertility problems. As the sperm production is affected by many factors such as smoking, alcohol, heat, drugs and infections, the analysis of unusual samples should be repeated at least twice with a month in between the tests. If a serious infertility problem is detected in the sperm analysis, the man is examined further for physical and hormonal aspects. Sperm production cycle is repeated every 2-3 months. So a sperm produced will be released in the semen 2-3 months later. Likewise, harmful factors (heavy fever, stress, fatigue, environmental factors) or beneficial drugs used for treatment may affect sperm properties even 3 months later.

This process should be kept in mind when assessing the results of semen analysis.

If no medication is used and no fever is experienced, at least two samples of sperm should be evaluated at 3-4 week intervals and the average of these samples should be decided.

Preferably, the sample to be examined should be given at the IVF centre.